Research Methodology 1

About the course

The course Research methodology 1 is designed to cover the basics of research methodology and statistics. It is a 4 credit course. This course is offered for PhD and MD.

Course Syllabus

Learning Objectives:

·         To understand the methodology of research

·         To introduce basics of biostatistics

·         To give exposure to scientific writing

·         To give hands on training in data tabulation, and graphical presentation 

Unit 1. Research Methodology                                                                               (20 hours)

  • Introduction to research methodology – definition of research, types of research, need for Yoga research
  • The research process
  • Literature review – PubMed, Google Scholar, Shodhganga, S-VYASA Digital library
  • Ethics of research – Laboratory ethics, Publication ethics, Ethical bodies – IEC & IRB, Guidelines for good clinical practice
  •  Sampling methods - Population and Sample; Simple Random Sampling, Systematic Sampling, Stratified Sampling, Cluster Sampling
  • Types of variables – Independent, dependent, confounding variable
  • Types of research design – Experimental design, cross sectional studies, Case study, Survey
  • Types of Biological data (Scales of measurement) – nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio
  • Measurement tools: Observation, questionnaire, and others
  • Reliability: Test-Retest Reliability, Internal Consistency, Inter rater Reliability
  • Validity: Construct Validity, Face Validity, Content Validity, Criterion Validity, Convergent & Discriminant Validity
  •  Introduction to Probability


Unit 2. Biostatistical analysis                                                                                 (20 hours)

 i.    Descriptive statistics

  • Frequency distribution
  • Measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode
  • Measures of dispersion – range, variance and standard deviation
  • Graphical presentation of data – Bar graphs, Pie chart, line diagram, scatter plot 
  • Normal distribution – Skewness and kurtosis characteristic of normal curve, empirical rule
  • Z distribution – calculating z score
  • Measures of correlation - Pearson’s r Correlation and Spearman Correlation


ii.         Inferential statistics

  • Introduction to inferential statistics
  • T – distribution – the characteristics of t distribution
  • Effect size, Power and sample size, errors in hypothesis testing
  • Introduction to methods of comparing means - T  tests – One sample t test, Paired samples t test, Independent samples t – test


Unit 3. Scientific communication                                                                 (20 hours)

  • Synopsis writing
  • Reference writing - different styles viz., Harvard, Vancouver, APA using Mendely
  • Writing a case report
  • Publication process
  • Research grant writing
  • Thesis writing
  • Research paper presentations
  • Conference presentations - Oral and Poster
  • Visit to research lab

Reference Books:

1.      Medical Research – R L Bijlani  

2.      Research Methodology - C R Kothari  

Download Syllabus